Friday, November 28, 2008

Introduction to Meteorology and Physical Oceanography

Meteorology (from Greek μετέωρος, metéōros, "high in the sky"; and -λογία, -logia) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting (in contrast with climatology). Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events which illuminate and are explained by the science of meteorology. Those events are bound by the variables that exist in Earth's atmosphere. They are temperature, air pressure, water vapor, and the gradients and interactions of each variable, and how they change in time. The majority of Earth's observed weather is located in the troposphere. [1] [2]

Meteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology.

Interactions between Earth's atmosphere and the oceans are part of coupled ocean-atmosphere studies. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture and construction.

Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.

Physical oceanography is one of several sub-domains into which oceanography is divided; others include biological, chemical and geological oceanographies.

Dimensions of Ocean

The oceans are far deeper than the continents are tall; examination of the earth's hypsographic curve shows that the average elevation of Earth's landmasses is only 840 metres (2,800 ft), while the ocean's average depth is 3,800 metres (12,000 ft). Though this apparent discrepancy is great, for both land and sea, the respective extremes such as mountains and trenches are rare.[1]

Area, volume plus mean and maximum depths of oceans (excluding adjacent seas)
Body Area (106km²) Volume (106km³) Mean depth (m) Maximum (m)
Pacific Ocean 165.2 707.6 4282 -10911
Atlantic Ocean 82.4 323.6 3926 -8605
Indian Ocean 73.4 291.0 3963 -8047
Southern Ocean 20.3

Arctic Ocean 14.1
Caribbean Sea 2.8


Monday, November 24, 2008


A mineral is a naturally occurring solid formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. A rock, by comparison, is an aggregate of minerals and need not have a specific chemical composition. Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salts to very complex silicates with thousands of known forms.[1] The study of minerals is called mineralogy.

Refer the book

Refer the list

# 1 Mineral definition and classification

* 1.1 Differences between minerals and rocks
o 1.1.1 Mineral composition of rocks
* 1.2 Physical properties of minerals
* 1.3 Chemical properties of minerals
o 1.3.1 Silicate class
o 1.3.2 Carbonate class
o 1.3.3 Sulfate class
o 1.3.4 Halide class
o 1.3.5 Oxide class
o 1.3.6 Sulfide class
o 1.3.7 Phosphate class
o 1.3.8 Element class
o 1.3.9 Organic class

Mineral definition and classification

To be classified as a true mineral, a substance must be a solid and have a crystalline structure. It must also be a naturally occurring, homogeneous substance with a defined chemical composition. Traditional definitions excluded organically derived material. However, the International Mineralogical Association in 1995 adopted a new definition:

a mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline and that has been formed as a result of geological processes.[2]

The modern classifications include an organic class - in both the new Dana and the Strunz classification schemes.[3][4]

The chemical composition may vary between end members of a mineral system. For example the plagioclase feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodium-rich albite (NaAlSi3O8) to calcium-rich anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) with four recognized intermediate compositions between. Mineral-like substances that don't strictly meet the definition are sometimes classified as mineraloids. Other natural-occurring substances are nonminerals. Industrial minerals is a market term and refers to commercially valuable mined materials (see also Minerals and Rocks section below).

A crystal structure is the orderly geometric spatial arrangement of atoms in the internal structure of a mineral. There are 14 basic crystal lattice arrangements of atoms in three dimensions, and these are referred to as the 14 "Bravais lattices". Each of these lattices can be classified into one of the six crystal systems, and all crystal structures currently recognized fit in one Bravais lattice and one crystal system. This crystal structure is based on regular internal atomic or ionic arrangement that is often expressed in the geometric form that the crystal takes. Even when the mineral grains are too small to see or are irregularly shaped, the underlying crystal structure is always periodic and can be determined by X-ray diffraction. Chemistry and crystal structure together define a mineral. In fact, two or more minerals may have the same chemical composition, but differ in crystal structure (these are known as polymorphs). For example, pyrite and marcasite are both iron sulfide, but their arrangement of atoms differs. Similarly, some minerals have different chemical compositions, but the same crystal structure: for example, halite (made from sodium and chlorine), galena (made from lead and sulfur) and periclase (made from magnesium and oxygen) all share the same cubic crystal structure.

Crystal structure greatly influences a mineral's physical properties. For example, though diamond and graphite have the same composition (both are pure carbon), graphite is very soft, while diamond is the hardest of all known minerals. This happens because the carbon atoms in graphite are arranged into sheets which can slide easily past each other, while the carbon atoms in diamond form a strong, interlocking three-dimensional network.

There are currently more than 4,000 known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association, which is responsible for the approval of and naming of new mineral species found in nature. Of these, perhaps 100 can be called "common," 50 are "occasional," and the rest are "rare" to "extremely rare."

Differences between minerals and rocks

A mineral is a naturally occurring solid with a definite chemical composition and a specific crystalline structure. A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals. (A rock may also include organic remains and mineraloids.) Some rocks are predominantly composed of just one mineral. For example, limestone is a sedimentary rock composed almost entirely of the mineral calcite. Other rocks contain many minerals, and the specific minerals in a rock can vary widely. Some minerals, like quartz, mica or feldspar are common, while others have been found in only one or two locations worldwide. The vast majority of the rocks of the Earth's crust consist of quartz, feldspar, mica, chlorite, kaolin, calcite, epidote, olivine, augite, hornblende, magnetite, hematite, limonite and a few other minerals.[5] Over half of the mineral species known are so rare that they have only been found in a handful of samples, and many are known from only one or two small grains.

Commercially valuable minerals and rocks are referred to as industrial minerals. Rocks from which minerals are mined for economic purposes are referred to as ores (the rocks and minerals that remain, after the desired mineral has been separated from the ore, are referred to as tailings).

Mineral composition of rocks

A main determining factor in the formation of minerals in a rock mass is the chemical composition of the mass, for a certain mineral can be formed only when the necessary elements are present in the rock. Calcite is most common in limestones, as these consist essentially of calcium carbonate; quartz is common in sandstones and in certain igneous rocks which contain a high percentage of silica.

Other factors are of equal importance in determining the natural association or paragenesis of rock-forming minerals, principally the mode of origin of the rock and the stages through which it has passed in attaining its present condition. Two rock masses may have very much the same bulk composition and yet consist of entirely different assemblages of minerals. The tendency is always for those compounds to be formed which are stable under the conditions under which the rock mass originated. A granite arises by the consolidation of a molten magma at high temperatures and great pressures and its component minerals are those stable under such conditions. Exposed to moisture, carbonic acid and other subaerial agents at the ordinary temperatures of the Earth's surface, some of these original minerals, such as quartz and white mica are relatively stable and remain unaffected; others weather or decay and are replaced by new combinations. The feldspar passes into kaolinite, muscovite and quartz, and any mafic minerals such as pyroxenes, amphiboles or biotite have been present they are often altered to chlorite, epidote, rutile and other substances. These changes are accompanied by disintegration, and the rock falls into a loose, incoherent, earthy mass which may be regarded as a sand or soil. The materials thus formed may be washed away and deposited as sandstone or siltstone. The structure of the original rock is now replaced by a new one; the mineralogical constitution is profoundly altered; but the bulk chemical composition may not be very different. The sedimentary rock may again undergo metamorphism. If penetrated by igneous rocks it may be recrystallized or, if subjected to enormous pressures with heat and movement during mountain building, it may be converted into a gneiss not very different in mineralogical composition though radically different in structure to the granite which was its original state.[5]

Physical properties of minerals

Classifying minerals can range from simple to very difficult. A mineral can be identified by several physical properties, some of them being sufficient for full identification without equivocation. In other cases, minerals can only be classified by more complex chemical or X-ray diffraction analysis; these methods, however, can be costly and time-consuming.

Physical properties commonly used are:[1]

* Crystal structure and habit: See the above discussion of crystal structure. A mineral may show good crystal habit or form, or it may be massive, granular or compact with only microscopically visible crystals.

* Hardness: the physical hardness of a mineral is usually measured according to the Mohs scale. This scale is relative and goes from 1 to 10. Minerals with a given Mohs hardness can scratch the surface of any mineral that has a lower hardness than itself.


Rough diamond.

o Mohs hardness scale:[6]

1. Talc Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
2. Gypsum CaSO4·2H2O
3. Calcite CaCO3
4. Fluorite CaF2
5. Apatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH,Cl,F)
6. Orthoclase KAlSi3O8
7. Quartz SiO2
8. Topaz Al2SiO4(OH,F)2
9. Corundum Al2O3
10. Diamond C (pure carbon)

* Luster indicates the way a mineral's surface interacts with light and can range from dull to glassy (vitreous).
o Metallic -high reflectivity like metal: galena and pyrite
o Sub-metallic -slightly less than metallic reflectivity: magnetite
o Non-metallic lusters:
+ Adamantine - brilliant, the luster of diamond also cerussite and anglesite
+ Vitreous -the luster of a broken glass: quartz
+ Pearly - iridescent and pearl-like: talc and apophyllite
+ Resinous - the luster of resin: sphalerite and sulfur
+ Silky - a soft light shown by fibrous materials: gypsum and chrysotile
+ Dull/earthy -shown by finely crystallized minerals: the kidney ore variety of hematite

* Color indicates the appearance of the mineral in reflected light or transmitted light for translucent minerals (i.e. what it looks like to the naked eye).
o Iridescence - the play of colors due to surface or internal interference. Labradorite exhibits internal iridescence whereas hematite and sphalerite often show the surface effect.
* Streak refers to the color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on an unglazed porcelain streak plate. Note that this is not always the same color as the original mineral.
* Cleavage describes the way a mineral may split apart along various planes. In thin sections, cleavage is visible as thin parallel lines across a mineral.
* Fracture describes how a mineral breaks when broken contrary to its natural cleavage planes.
o Chonchoidal fracture is a smooth curved fracture with concentric ridges of the type shown by glass.
o Hackley is jagged fracture with sharp edges.
o Fibrous
o Irregular
* Specific gravity relates the mineral mass to the mass of an equal volume of water, namely the density of the material. While most minerals, including all the common rock-forming minerals, have a specific gravity of 2.5 - 3.5, a few are noticeably more or less dense, e.g. several sulfide minerals have high specific gravity compared to the common rock-forming minerals.
* Other properties: fluorescence (response to ultraviolet light), magnetism, radioactivity, tenacity (response to mechanical induced changes of shape or form), piezoelectricity and reactivity to dilute acids.

Chemical properties of minerals

Minerals may be classified according to chemical composition. They are here categorized by anion group. The list below is in approximate order of their abundance in the Earth's crust. The list follows the Dana classification system[1][7] which closely parallels the Strunz classification.

Silicate class


The largest group of minerals by far are the silicates (most rocks are ≥95% silicates), which are composed largely of silicon and oxygen, with the addition of ions such as aluminium, magnesium, iron, and calcium. Some important rock-forming silicates include the feldspars, quartz, olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, garnets, and micas.

1. Tecto Silicates
Tectosilicates, or "framework silicates", have a three-dimensional framework of silicate tetrahedra with SiO2 or a 1:2 ratio. This group comprises nearly 75% of the crust of the Earth. Tectosilicates with the exception of the quartz group are aluminosilicates.

* Quartz group
o Quartz - SiO2
o Tridymite - SiO2
o Cristobalite - SiO2
* Feldspar group
o Alkali-feldspars
+ Potassium-feldspars
# Microcline - KAlSi3O8
# Orthoclase - KAlSi3O8
# Sanidine - KAlSi3O8
+ Anorthoclase - (Na,K)AlSi3O8
+ Albite - NaAlSi3O8
o Plagioclase feldspars
+ Albite - NaAlSi3O8
+ Oligoclase - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8 (Na:Ca 4:1)
+ Andesine - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8 (Na:Ca 3:2)
+ Labradorite - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8 (Na:Ca 2:3)
+ Bytownite - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8 (Na:Ca 1:4)
+ Anorthite - CaAl2Si2O8
* Feldspathoid group
o Nosean - Na8Al6Si6O24(SO4)
o Cancrinite - Na6Ca2(CO3,Al6Si6O24).2H2O
o Leucite - KAlSi2O6
o Nepheline - (Na,K)AlSiO4
o Sodalite - Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2
+ Hauyne - (Na,Ca)4-8Al6Si6(O,S)24(SO4,Cl)1-2
o Lazurite - (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(SO4,S,Cl)2
* Petalite - LiAlSi4O10
* Scapolite group
o Marialite - Na4(AlSi3O8)3(Cl2,CO3,SO4)
o Meionite - Ca4(Al2Si2O8)3(Cl2CO3,SO4)
* Analcime - NaAlSi2O6•H2O
* Zeolite group
o Natrolite - Na2Al2Si3O10•2H2O
o Chabazite - CaAl2Si4O12•6H2O
o Heulandite - CaAl2Si7O18•6H2O
o Stilbite - NaCa2Al5Si13O36•17H2O


Feldspar is the name of a group of rock-forming minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust.[1]

Feldspars crystallize from magma in both intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, and they can also occur as compact minerals, as veins, and are also present in many types of metamorphic rock.[2] Rock formed entirely of plagioclase feldspar (see below) is known as anorthosite.[3] Feldspars are also found in many types of sedimentary rock.[4]

Compositions of Feldspars
This group of minerals consists of framework or tectosilicates. Compositions of major elements in common feldspars can be expressed in terms of three endmembers:

Potassium-Feldspar (K-spar) endmember KAlSi3O8[1]

Albite endmember NaAlSi3O8[1]

Anorthite endmember CaAl2Si2O8[1]

Solid solutions between K-feldspar and albite are called alkali feldspar.[1] Solid solutions between albite and anorthite are called plagioclase,[1] or more properly plagioclase feldspar. Only limited solid solution occurs between K-feldspar and anorthite, and in the two other solid solutions, immiscibility occurs at temperatures common in the crust of the earth. Albite is considered both a plagioclase and alkali feldspar. In addition to albite, barium feldspars are also considered both alkali and plagioclase feldspars. Barium feldspars form as the result of the replacement of potassium feldspar.

The alkali feldspars are as follows:

* orthoclase (monoclinic),[6] — KAlSi3O8
* sanidine (monoclinic)[7] —(K,Na)AlSi3O8
* microcline (triclinic)[8] — KAlSi3O8
* anorthoclase (triclinic) — (Na,K)AlSi3O8

Sanidine is stable at the highest temperatures, and microcline at the lowest.[7][6] Perthite is a typical texture in alkali feldspar, due to exsolution of contrasting alkali feldspar compositions during cooling of an intermediate composition. The perthitic textures in the alkali feldspars of many granites can be seen with the naked eye.[9] Microperthitic textures in crystals are visible using a light microscope, whereas cryptoperthitic textures can only be seen using an electron microscope.

The plagioclase feldspars are triclinic. The plagioclase series follows (with percent anorthite in parentheses):

* albite (0 to 10) — NaAlSi3O8
* oligoclase (10 to 30) — (Na,Ca)(Al,Si)AlSi2O8
* andesine (30 to 50) — NaAlSi3O8 — CaAl2Si2O8
* labradorite (50 to 70) — (Ca,Na)Al(Al,Si)Si2O8
* bytownite (70 to 90) — (NaSi,CaAl)AlSi2O8
* anorthite (90 to 100) — CaAl2Si2O8

Intermediate compositions of plagioclase feldspar also may exsolve to two feldspars of contrasting composition during cooling, but diffusion is much slower than in alkali feldspar, and the resulting two-feldspar intergrowths typically are too fine-grained to be visible with optical microscopes. The immiscibility gaps in the plagioclase solid solution are complex compared to the gap in the alkali feldspars. The play of colors visible in some feldspar of labradorite composition is due to very fine-grained exsolution lamellae.

The barium feldspars are monoclinic and comprise the following:

* celsian — BaAlSi3O8
* hyalophane — (K,Na,Ba)(Al,Si)4O8

Feldspars can form clay minerals through chemical weathering.[10]

Plagioclase Feldspars
Plagioclase is a very important series of tectosilicate minerals within the feldspar family. Rather than referring to a particular mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a solid solution series, more properly known as the plagioclase feldspar series (from the Greek "oblique fracture", in reference to its two cleavage angles). The series ranges from albite to anorthite endmembers (with respective compositions NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8), where sodium and calcium atoms can substitute for each other in the mineral's crystal lattice structure. Plagioclase in hand samples is often identified by its polysynthetic twinning or 'record-groove' effect.

Plagioclase is a major constituent mineral in the Earth's crust, and is consequently an important diagnostic tool in petrology for identifying the composition, origin and evolution of igneous rocks. Plagioclase is also a major constituent of rock in the highlands of the Earth's moon.

The composition of a plagioclase feldspar is typically denoted by its overall fraction of anorthite (%An) or albite (%Ab), and readily determined by measuring the plagioclase crystal's refractive index in crushed grain mounts, or its extinction angle in thin section under a polarizing microscope. The extinction angle is an optical characteristic and varies with the albite fraction (%Ab). There are several named plagioclase feldspars that fall between albite and anorthite in the series. The following table shows their compositions in terms of constituent anorthite and albite percentages.

The intermediate members of the plagioclase group are very similar to each other and normally cannot be distinguished except by their optical properties.

Albite is named from the Latin albus, in reference to its unusually pure white color. It is a relatively common and important rock-making mineral associated with the more acid rock types and in pegmatite dikes, often with rarer minerals like tourmaline and beryl.

Oligoclase is common in granite, syenite, diorite and gneiss. It is a frequent associate of orthoclase. The name oligoclase is derived from the Greek for little and fracture, in reference to the fact that its cleavage angle differs significantly from 90°. Sunstone is mainly oligoclase (sometimes albite) with flakes of hematite.

Andesine is a characteristic mineral of rocks such as diorite which contain a moderate amount of silica and related volcanics such as andesite.

Labradorite is the characteristic feldspar of the more basic rock types such as diorite, gabbro, andesite or basalt and is usually associated with one of the pyroxenes or amphiboles. Labradorite frequently shows an iridescent display of colors due to light refracting within the lamellae of the crystal. It is named after Labrador, where it is a constituent of the intrusive igneous rock anorthosite which is composed almost entirely of plagioclase. A variety of labradorite known as spectrolite is found in Finland.

Bytownite, named after the former name for Ottawa, Canada (Bytown), is a rare mineral occasionally found in more basic rocks.

Anorthite was named by Rose in 1823 from the Greek meaning oblique, referring to its triclinic crystallization. Anorthite is a comparatively rare mineral but occurs in the basic plutonic rocks of some orogenic calc-alkaline suites.



Nepheline, also called nephelite (from Greek: nephos, "cloud"), is a feldspathoid: a silica-undersaturated aluminosilicate, Na3KAl4Si4O16, that occurs in intrusive and volcanic rocks with low silica, and in their associated pegmatites. It is very occasionally found in mica schist and gneiss.

Nepheline crystals are rare and belong to the hexagonal system, usually having the form of a short, six-sided prism terminated by the basal plane. The unsymmetrical etched figures produced artificially on the prism faces indicate, however, that the crystals are hemimorphic and tetartohedral, the only element of symmetry being a polar hexad axis. It is found in compact, granular aggregates, and can be white, yellow, gray, green, or even reddish (in the eleolite variety). The hardness is 5.5 - 6, and the specific gravity 2.56 - 2.66. It is often translucent with a greasy luster.

The low index of refraction and the feeble double refraction in nepheline are nearly the same as in quartz; but since in nepheline the sign of the double refraction is negative, while in quartz it is positive, the two minerals are readily distinguished under the microscope. An important determinative character of nepheline is the ease with which it is decomposed by hydrochloric acid, with separation of gelatinous silica (which may be readily stained by coloring matters) and cubes of salt. For this reason, a clear crystal of nepheline becomes cloudy when immersed in acid.

Although sodium and potassium are always present in naturally occurring nepheline in approximately the atomic ratio (3:1), artificially prepared crystals have the composition NaAlSiO4; the corresponding potassium compound, KAISiO4, which is the mineral kaliophilite, has also been prepared artificially. It has therefore been suggested that the orthosilicate formula, (Na,K)AlSiO4, represents the true composition of nepheline.

The mineral is one especially liable to alteration, and in the laboratory various substitution products of nepheline have been prepared. In nature it is frequently altered to zeolites (especially natrolite), sodalite, kaolin, or compact muscovite. Gieseckite and liebenerite are pseudomorphs.

Two varieties of nepheline are distinguished, differing in their external appearance and in their mode of occurrence, being analogous in these respects to sanidine and common orthoclase respectively. Glassy nepheline has the form of small, colorless, transparent crystals and grains with a vitreous luster. It is characteristic of the later volcanic rocks rich in alkalis, such as phonolite, nepheline-basalt, leucite basalt, etc., and also of certain dike-rocks, such as tinguaite. The best crystals are those which occur with mica, sanidine, garnet, etc., in the crystal-lined cavities of the ejected blocks of Monte Somma, Vesuvius. The other variety, known as elaeolite, occurs as large, rough crystals, or more often as irregular masses, which have a greasy luster and are opaque, or at most translucent, with a reddish, greenish, brownish or grey color. It forms an essential constituent of certain alkaline plutonic rocks of the nepheline syenite series, which are typically developed in southern Norway.

The color and greasy luster of elaeolite (a name given by M. H. Klaproth 1809, from Greek words for oil and stone; German Fettstein) are due to the presence of numerous microscopic enclosures of other minerals, possibly augite or hornblende. These enclosures sometimes give rise to a chatoyant effect like that of cats-eye and cymophane; and elaeolite when of a good green or red color and showing a distinct band of light is sometimes cut as a gem-stone with a convex surface.



Leucite is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium tectosilicate K[AlSi2O6]. Crystals have the form of cubic icositetrahedra but, as first observed by Sir David Brewster in 1821, they are not optically isotropic, and are therefore pseudo-cubic. Goniometric measurements made by Gerhard vom Rath in 1873 led him to refer the crystals to the tetragonal system. Optical investigations have since proved the crystals to be still more complex in character, and to consist of several orthorhombic or monoclinic individuals, which are optically biaxial and repeatedly twinned, giving rise to twin-lamellae and to striations on the faces. When the crystals are raised to a temperature of about 500 °C they become optically isotropic and the twin-lamellae and striations disappear, although they reappear when the crystals are cooled again. This pseudo-cubic character of leucite is very similar to that of the mineral boracite.

The crystals are white or ash-grey in colour, hence the name suggested by A. G. Werner in 1701, from 'λευκος', '(matt) white'. They are transparent and glassy when fresh, albeit with a noticeably subdued 'subvitreous' lustre due to the low refractive index, but readily alter to become waxy/greasy and then dull and opaque; they are brittle and break with a conchoidal fracture. The Mohs hardness is 5.5, and the specific gravity 2.47. Inclusions of other minerals, arranged in concentric zones, are frequently present in the crystals. On account of the color and form of the crystals the mineral was early known as white garnet. French authors in older literature may employ R. J. Haüy's name amphigène, but 'leucite' is the only name for this mineral species that is recognised as official by the International Mineralogical Association.


2.Sheet Silicates(Phylosilicates)
Phyllosilicates, sheet silicates (from Greek φύλλον phyllon, leaf), form parallel sheets of silicate tetrahedra with Si2O5 or a 2:5 ratio.

* Serpentine group
o Antigorite - Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
o Chrysotile - Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
o Lizardite - Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
* Clay mineral group
o Kaolinite - Al2Si2O5(OH)4
o Illite - (K,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10[(OH)2,(H2O)]
o Smectite -
o Montmorillonite - (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2·nH2O
o Vermiculite - (MgFe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2·4H2O
o Talc - Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
o Pyrophyllite - Al2Si4O10(OH)2
* Mica group
o Biotite - K(Mg,Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
o Muscovite - KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
o Phlogopite - KMg3Si4O10(OH)2
o Lepidolite - K(Li,Al)2-3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
o Margarite - CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
o Glauconite - (K,Na)(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
* Chlorite group
o Chlorite - (Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2•(Mg,Fe)3(OH)6

Mica group

The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic with a tendency towards pseudo-hexagonal crystals and are similar in chemical composition. The highly perfect cleavage, which is the most prominent characteristic of mica, is explained by the hexagonal sheet-like arrangement of its atoms.

The word "mica" is thought to be derived from the Latin word micare, "glitteren", in reference to the brilliant appearance of this mineral (especially when in small scales).

Mica classification

Chemically, micas can be given the general formula[1]

in which X is K, Na, or Ca or less commonly Ba, Rb, or Cs;
Y is Al, Mg, or Fe or less commonly Mn, Cr, Ti, Li, etc.;
Z is chiefly Si or Al but also may include Fe3+ or Ti.

Structurally the micas can be classed as disoctahedral (Y = 4) and trisoctahedral (Y = 6). If the X ion is K or Na the mica is a common mica whereas if the X ion is Ca the mica is classed as a brittle mica.

Trisoctahedral micas

Common micas:

* Phlogopite
* Biotite
* Zinnwaldite
* Lepidolite
* Muscovite

Brittle micas:

* Clintonite

Interlayer deficient micas

Very fine-grained micas with typically more variation in ion and water content are informally termed clay micas. They include

* Hydro-muscovite with H3O+ along with K in the X site;
* Illite with a K deficiency in the X site and correspondingly more Si in the Z site;
* Phengite with Mg or Fe2+ substituting for Al in the Y site and a corresponding increase in Si in the Z site.

Mica output in 2005

The British Geological Survey reports that as of 2005, India had the largest deposits of mica in world. China was the top producer of mica with almost a third of the global share, closely followed by the USA, South Korea and Canada. Large Deposits of Sheet Mica were mined in New England from the 19th Century to the 1960's. Large mines existed in Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Maine.

Mica is widely distributed and occurs in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary regimes. Large crystals of mica used for various applications are typically mined from granitic pegmatites.

Until the 19th century, large crystals of mica were quite rare and expensive as a result of the limited supply in Europe. However, its price dramatically dropped when large reserves were found and mined in Africa and South America during the early 1800s. The largest sheet of mica ever mined in the world came from a mine in Denholm, Quebec, Canada.[2]

Scrap and flake mica is produced all over the world. Flake mica comes from several sources: the metamorphic rock called schist as a by-product of processing feldspar and kaolin resources, from placer deposits, and from pegmatites. Sheet mica is considerably less abundant than flake and scrap mica. Sheet mica is occasionally recovered from mining scrap and flake mica. The most important sources of sheet mica are pegmatite deposits.

Properties and uses

Mica has a high dielectric strength and excellent chemical stability, making it a favoured material for manufacturing capacitors for radio frequency applications. It has also been used as an insulator in high voltage electrical equipment. It is also birefringent and is commonly used to make quarter and half wave plates.

Because mica is resistant to heat it is used instead of glass in windows for stoves and kerosene heaters. It is also used to separate electrical conductors in cables that are designed to have a fire-resistance rating in order to provide circuit integrity. The idea is to keep the metal conductors from fusing in order to prevent a short-circuit so that the cables remain operational during a fire, which can be important for applications such as emergency lighting.

Illites or clay micas have a low cation exchange capacity for 2:1 clays. K+ ions between layers of mica prevent swelling by blocking water molecules.

Because mica can be pressed into a thin film, it is often used on Geiger-Müller tubes to detect low penetrating Alpha particles.

Aventurine is a variety of quartz with mica inclusions used as a gemstone.

Pressed mica sheets are often used in place of glass in greenhouses.

Mica is often found in mineral makeup.

Some brands of toothpaste include powdered white mica. This acts as a mild abrasive to aid polishing of the tooth surface, and also adds a cosmetically-pleasing glittery shimmer to the paste. The shimmer from mica is also used in makeup, as it gives a translucent "glow" to the skin or helps to mask imperfections.

Mica sheets are used to provide structure for heating wire (such as in Kanthal or Nichrome) in heating elements and can withstand up to 900 °C (1,650 °F).[3][4][5]

Another use of mica is in the production of ultraflat thin film surfaces (e.g. gold surfaces) using mica as substrate. Although the deposited film surface is still rough due to deposition kinetics, the back side of the film at mica-film interface provides ultraflatness, when the film is removed from the substrate.

Muscovite mica is the most common substrate for sample preparation for the atomic force microscope. Freshly-cleaved mica surfaces have been used as clean imaging substrates in atomic force microscopy, enabling for example the imaging of bismuth films,[6] plasma glycoproteins,[7] membrane bilayers,[8] and DNA molecules.[9]

Mica slices are used in electronics to provide electric insulation between a heat-generating component and the heat sink used to cool it[10] . The same word is sometimes used by technicians to designate a synthetised gum (usually blue or gray) which is used for the same purpose, but which does not actually consist of silicate mineral (language abuse).


Muscovite (also known as Common mica, Isinglass, or Potash mica[4]) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ (sheets) which are often highly elastic. Sheets of muscovite 5 metres by 3 metres have been found in Nellore, India.[5]

Muscovite has a Mohs hardness of 2–2.25 parallel to the [001] face, 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2.76–3. It can be colorless or tinted through grays, browns, greens, yellows, or (rarely) violet or red, and can be transparent or translucent. The green, chromium-rich variety is called fuchsite.

Muscovite is the most common mica, found in granites, pegmatites, gneisses, and schists, and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz, feldspar, kyanite, etc. In pegmatites, it is often found in immense sheets that are commercially valuable. Muscovite is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as a lubricant.

The name of muscovite comes from Muscovy-glass, a name formerly used for the mineral because of its use in Russia for windows. It is anisotropic and has high birefringence. Its crystal system is monoclinic.



Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg, Fe)3AlSi3O10(F, OH)2. More generally, it refers to the dark mica series, primarily a solid-solution series between the iron-endmember annite, and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite; more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite.

Biotite is a sheet silicate. Iron, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, oxygen, and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bond together by potassium ions. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich than phlogopite. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) -- both form in some rocks, in some instances side-by-side.

Like other mica minerals, biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage, and consists of flexible sheets, or lamellae, which easily flake off. It has a monoclinic crystal system, with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to form a pseudohexagonal crystal. Although not easily seen because of the cleavage and sheets, fracture is uneven. It has a hardness of 2.5–3, a specific gravity of 2.7–3.1, and an average density of 3.09 g/cm³. It appears greenish to brown or black, and even yellow when weathered. It can be transparent to opaque, has a vitreous to pearly lustre, and a grey-white streak. When biotite is found in large chunks, they are called “books” because it resembles a book with pages of many sheets.

Biotite is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. For instance, biotite occurs in the lava of Mount Vesuvius and in the Monzoni inrusive complex of the western Dolomites. It is an essential phenocryst in some varieties of lamprophyre. Biotite is occasionally found in large cleavable crystals, especially in pegmatite veins, as in New England, Virginia and North Carolina. Other notable occurrences include Bancroft and Sudbury, Ontario. It is an essential constituent of many metamorphic schists, and it forms in suitable compositions over a wide range of pressure and temperature.

Biotite is used extensively to constrain ages of rocks, by either potassium-argon dating or argon-argon dating. Because argon escapes readily from the biotite crystal structure at high temperatures, these methods may provide only minimum ages for many rocks. Biotite is also useful in assessing temperature histories of metamorphic rocks, because the partitioning of iron and magnesium between biotite and garnet is sensitive to temperature.

Biotite is used in electrical devices, usually as a dielectric in capacitors and thermionic valves.

Biotite was named by J.F.L. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot, who, in 1816, researched the optical properties of mica, discovering many unique properties.


Phlogopite is a yellow, greenish, or reddish-brown member of the mica family of phyllosilicates. It is also known as magnesium mica.

Phlogopite is the magnesium endmember of the biotite solid solution series, with the chemical formula KMg3AlSi3O10(F,OH)2, or (KF)2(MgO)6(Al2O3)(SiO2)6(H2O)2. For physical and optical identification, it shares most of the characteristic properties of the more-common biotite, but lighter with a hint of olive green.


Zinnwaldite, KLiFeAl(AlSi3)O10(OH,F)2, is a potassium lithium iron aluminium silicate hydroxide fluoride silicate mineral in the mica group.

It occurs in greisens, pegmatite, and quartz veins often associated with tin ore deposits. It is commonly associated with topaz, cassiterite, wolframite, lepidolite, spodumene, beryl, tourmaline, and fluorite.

It was first described in 1845 in Zinnwald/Cinovec on the German-Czech Republic border.


Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored phyllosilicate mineral of the mica group that is a secondary source of lithium.[3] It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. It is one of the major sources of the rare alkali metals rubidium and caesium.[4] In 1861 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff extracted 150 kg of lepidolite and yielded few grams of rubidium salts for analysis, and therefore discovered the new element rubidium.[5]

It occurs in granite pegmatites, in some high-temperature quartz veins, greisens, and granites. Associated minerals include quartz, feldspar, spodumene, amblygonite, tourmaline, columbite, cassiterite, topaz, and beryl.[1]

Notable occurrences: Brazil; Ural Mountains, Russia; California; Tanco Pegmatite, Bernic Lake Manitoba, Canada, Madagascar.

Clintonite is a calcium magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate mineral. It is a member of the margarite group of micas and the subgroup often referred to as the brittle micas. Clintonite has the chemical formula: Ca(Mg, Al)3(Al3Si)O10(OH)2. Like other micas and chlorites, clintonite is monoclinic in crystal form and has a perfect basal cleavage parallel to the flat surface of the plates or scales. The Mohs hardness of clintonite is 6.5 and the specific gravity is 3.0 to 3.1. It occurs as variably colored, colorless, green, yellow, red, to reddish brown, masses and radial clusters. Typical formation environment is in serpentinized dolomitic limestones and contact metamorphosed skarns.

The brittle micas differ chemically from the micas in containing less silica and no alkalis, and from the chlorites in containing much less water; in many respects they are intermediate between the micas and chlorites. Clintonite and its iron rich variety xanthophyllite are sometimes considered the calcium analogues of the phlogopites.

Clintonite was first described in 1843 for an occurrence in Orange County, New York. It was named for De Witt Clinton (1769-1828).

chlorite Group

The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals. Chlorites can be described by the following four endmembers based on their chemistry via substitution of the following four elements in the silicate lattice; Mg, Fe, Ni, and Mn.

* Clinochlore: (Mg5Al)(AlSi3)O10(OH)8
* Chamosite: (Fe5Al)(AlSi3)O10(OH)8
* Nimite: (Ni5Al)(AlSi3)O10(OH)8
* Pennantite: (Mn,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8

In addition zinc, lithium and calcium species are known. The great range in composition results in considerable variation in physical, optical, and X-ray properties. Similarly, the range of chemical composition allows chlorite group minerals to exist over a wide range of temperature and pressure conditions. For this reason chlorite minerals are ubiquitous minerals within low and medium temperature metamorphic rocks, some igneous rocks, hydrothermal rocks and deeply buried sediments.

Chlorite is commonly found in igneous rocks as an alteration product of mafic minerals such as pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite. Chlorite is a common mineral associated with hydrothermal ore deposits and commonly occurs with epidote, sericite, adularia and sulfide minerals. In this environment chlorite may be a retrograde metamorphic alteration mineral of existing ferromagnesian minerals, or it may be present as a metasomatism product via addition of Fe, Mg, or other compounds into the rock mass. Chlorite is also a common metamorphic mineral, usually indicative of low-grade metamorphism. It is the diagnostic species of the zeolite facies and of lower greenschist facies. It occurs in the quartz, albite, sericite, chlorite, garnet assemblage of pelitic schist. Within ultramafic rocks, metamorphism can also produce predominantly clinochlore chlorite in association with talc. Experiments indicate that chlorite can be stable in peridotite of the Earth's mantle above the ocean lithosphere carried down by subduction, and chlorite may even be present in the mantle volume from which island arc magmas are generated.

Chlorite occurs naturally in a variety of locations and forms. For example, chlorite is found naturally in certain parts of Wales in mineral schists.[1] Chlorite is found in large boulders scattered on the ground surface on Ring Mountain in Marin County, California.[2]


3.Double Chain Inosilicates
chain silicates, have interlocking chains of silicate tetrahedra with Si4O11, 4:11 ratio.

* Amphibole group
o Anthophyllite - (Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2
o Cumingtonite series
+ Cummingtonite - Fe2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
+ Grunerite - Fe7Si8O22(OH)2
o Tremolite series
+ Tremolite - Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
+ Actinolite - Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2
o Hornblende - (Ca,Na)2-3(Mg,Fe,Al)5Si6(Al,Si)2O22(OH)2
o Sodium amphibole group
+ Glaucophane - Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)
+ Riebeckite (asbestos) - Na2Fe2+3Fe3+2Si8O22(OH)2
+ Arfvedsonite - Na3(Fe,Mg)4FeSi8O22(OH)2

Amphibole Group

Amphibole (pronounced amfi-bowl) defines an important group of generally dark-colored rock-forming inosilicate minerals, composed of double chain SiO4 tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures. Amphiboles crystallize into two crystal systems, monoclinic and orthorhombic. In chemical composition and general characteristics they are similar to the pyroxenes. The chief differences between amphiboles and pyroxenes are that (i) they contain essential hydroxyl (OH) or halogene (F, Cl) and (ii) the basic structure is a double chain of tetrahedra (as opposed to the single chain structure of pyroxene). Most apparent, in hand specimens, is that amphiboles form oblique cleavage planes (at around 120 degrees), whereas pyroxenes have cleavage angles of approximately 90 degrees. Amphiboles are also specifically less dense than the corresponding pyroxenes. In optical characteristics, many amphiboles are distinguished by their stronger pleochroism and by the smaller angle of extinction (Z angle c) on the plane of symmetry. Amphiboles are the primary constituent of amphibolites.

Amphiboles are minerals of either igneous or metamorphic origin; in the former case occurring as constituents (hornblende) of igneous rocks, such as granite, diorite, andesite and others. Those of metamorphic origin include examples such as those developed in limestones by contact metamorphism (tremolite) and those formed by the alteration of other ferromagnesian minerals (hornblende). Pseudomorphs of amphibole after pyroxene are known as uralite.

The name amphibole (Greek αμφιβολος - amphibolos meaning 'ambiguous') was used by RJ Haüy to include tremolite, actinolite, tourmaline and hornblende. The group was so named by Haüy in allusion to the protean variety, in composition and appearance, assumed by its minerals. This term has since been applied to the whole group. Numerous sub-species and varieties are distinguished, the more important of which are tabulated below in three series. The formulae of each will be seen to be built on the general double-chain silicate formula RSi4O11.

Amphibole groups

Orthorhombic Series

* Anthophyllite (Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2

Monoclinic Series

* Tremolite Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
* Actinolite Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2
* Cummingtonite Fe2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
* Grunerite Fe7Si8O22(OH)2
* Hornblende Ca2(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH)2
* Glaucophane Na2(Mg,Fe)3Al2Si8O22(OH)2
* Riebeckite Na2Fe2+3Fe3+2Si8O22(OH)2
* Arfvedsonite Na3Fe2+4Fe3+Si8O22(OH)2
* Crocidolite Na2Fe2+3Fe3+2Si8O22(OH)2
* Richterite Na2Ca(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2
* Pargasite NaCa2Mg3Fe2+Si6Al3O22(OH)2

Of these, tremolite, hornblende, and crocidolite, as well as the important varieties, asbestos and jade, are treated under their own headings. Brief mention need only be made of some of the others. Naturally, on account of the wide variations in chemical composition, the different members vary considerably in properties and general appearance.

Anthophyllite occurs as brownish, fibrous or lamellar masses with hornblende in mica-schist at Kongsberg in Norway and some other localities. An aluminous related species is known as gedrite and a deep green Russian variety containing little iron as kupfferite.

Hornblende is an important constituent of many igneous rocks. It is also an important constituent of amphibolites formed by metamorphism of basalt.

Actinolite is an important and common member of the monoclinic series, forming radiating groups of acicular crystals of a bright green or greyish-green color. It occurs frequently as a constituent of greenschists. The name (from Greek ακτις/aktis, a 'ray' and λιθος/lithos, a 'stone') is a translation of the old German word Strahlstein (radiated stone).

Glaucophane, crocidolite, riebeckite and arfvedsonite form a somewhat special group of alkali-amphiboles. The first two are blue fibrous minerals, with glaucophane occurring in blueschists and crocidolite (blue asbestos) in ironstone formations, both resulting from dynamo-metamorphic processes. The latter two are dark green minerals, which occur as original constituents of igneous rocks rich in sodium, such as nepheline-syenite and phonolite.

Pargasite is a rare magnesium-rich amphibole with essential sodium, usually found in ultramafic rocks. For instance, it occurs in uncommon mantle xenoliths, carried up by kimberlite. It is hard, dense, black and usually idiomorphic, with a red-brown pleochroism in petrographic thin section.

4.Single Chain Inosilicates
chain silicates, have interlocking chains of silicate tetrahedra with SiO3, 1:3 ratio.

* Pyroxene group
o Enstatite - orthoferrosilite series
+ Enstatite - MgSiO3
+ Ferrosilite - FeSiO3
o Pigeonite - Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)1.75Si2O6
o Diopside - hedenbergite series
+ Diopside - CaMgSi2O6
+ Hedenbergite - CaFeSi2O6
+ Augite - (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)2O6
o Sodium pyroxene series
+ Jadeite - NaAlSi2O6
+ Aegirine (Acmite) - NaFe3+Si2O6
o Spodumene - LiAlSi2O6
* Pyroxenoid group
o Wollastonite - CaSiO3
o Rhodonite - MnSiO3
o Pectolite - NaCa2(Si3O8)(OH)

pyroxenes Group

The pyroxenes are a group of important rock-forming silicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks. They share a common structure comprised of single chains of silica tetrahedra and they crystallize in the monoclinic and orthorhombic systems. Pyroxenes have the general formula XY(Si,Al)2O6 (where X represents calcium, sodium, iron+2 and magnesium and more rarely zinc, manganese and lithium and Y represents ions of smaller size, such as chromium, aluminium, iron+3, magnesium, manganese, scandium, titanium, vanadium and even iron+2). Although aluminium substitutes extensively for silicon in silicates such as feldspars and amphiboles, the substitution occurs only to a limited extent in most pyroxenes.

The name pyroxene comes from the Greek words for fire and stranger. Pyroxenes were named this way because of their presence in volcanic lavas, where they are sometimes seen as crystals embedded in volcanic glass; it was assumed they were impurities in the glass, hence the name "fire strangers". However, they are simply early forming minerals that crystallized before the lava erupted.

The upper mantle of Earth is composed mainly of olivine and pyroxene. A piece of the mantle is shown in Figure 1 (orthopyroxene is black, diopside (containing chromium) is bright green, and olivine is yellow-green) and is dominated by olivine, typical for common peridotite. Pyroxene and feldspar are the major minerals in basalt and gabbro.

The chain silicate structure of the pyroxenes offers much flexibility in the incorporation of various cations and the names of the pyroxene minerals are primarily defined by their chemical composition. Pyroxene minerals are named according to the chemical species occupying the X (or M2) site, the Y (or M1) site, and the tetrahederal T site. Cations in Y (M1) site are closely bound to 6 oxygens in octahedral coordination. Cations in the X (M2) site can be coordinated with 6 to 8 oxygen atoms, depending on the cation size. Twenty mineral names are recognised by the International Mineralogical Association's Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names and 105 previously used names have been discarded (Morimoto et al., 1989).

A typical pyroxene has mostly silicon in the tetrahedral site and predominately ions with a charge of +2 in both the X and Y sites, giving the approximate formula XYT2O6. The names of the common calcium - iron - magnesium pyroxenes are defined in the 'pyroxene quadrilateral' shown in Figure 2. The enstatite-ferrosilite series ([Mg,Fe]SiO3) contain up to 5 mol.% calcium and exists in three polymorphs, orthorhombic orthoenstatite and protoenstatite and monoclinic clinoenstatite (and the ferrosilite equivalents). Increasing the calcium content prevents the formation of the orthorhombic phases and pigeonite ([Mg,Fe,Ca][Mg,Fe]Si2O6) only crystallises in the monoclinic system. There is not complete solid solution in calcium content and Mg-Fe-Ca pyroxenes with calcium contents between about 15 and 25 mol.% are not stable with respect to a pair of exolved crystals. This leads to a miscibility gap between pigeonite and augite compositions. There is an arbitrary separation between augite and the diopside-hedenbergite (CaMgSi2O6 - CaFeSi2O6) solid solution. The divide is taken at >45 mol.% Ca. As the calcium ion cannot occupy the Y site, pyroxenes with more than 50 mol.% calcium are not possible. A related mineral wollastonite has the formula of the hypothetical calcium end member but important structural differences mean that it is not grouped with the pyroxenes.

Magnesium, calcium and iron are by no means the only cations that can occupy the X and Y sites in the pyroxene structure. A second important series of pyroxene minerals are the sodium-rich pyroxenes, corresponding to nomenclature shown in Figure 3. The inclusion of sodium, which has a charge of +1, into the pyroxene implies the need for a mechanism to make up the "missing" positive charge. In jadeite and aegirine this is added by the inclusion of a +3 cation (aluminium and iron(III) respectively) on the Y site. Sodium pyroxenes with more than 20 mol.% calcium, magnesium or iron(II) components are known as omphacite and aegirine-augite, with 80% or more of these components the pyroxene falls in the quadrilateral shown in figure 1.

Enstatite is the magnesium endmember of the pyroxene silicate mineral series enstatite (MgSiO3) - ferrosilite (FeSiO3). The magnesium rich members of the solid solution series are common rock-forming minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. The intermediate composition, (Mg,Fe)SiO3, has historically been known as hypersthene, although this name has been formally abandoned and replaced by orthopyroxene. When determined petrographically or chemicaly the composition is given as relative proportions of enstatite (En) and ferrosilite (Fs) (e.g., En80Fs20).

Weathered enstatite with a small amount of iron takes on a submetallic luster and a bronze-like color. This material is termed bronzite, although it is more correctly called altered enstatite.

Most natural crystals are orthorhombic (space group Pbca) although three polymorphs are known. The high temperature, low pressure polymorphs are protoenstatite and protoferrosilite (also orthorhombic, space group Pbcn) while the low temperature forms, clinoenstatite and clinoferrosilite, are monoclinic (space group P21/c).

Bronzite and hypersthene were known long before enstatite, which was first described by G. A. Kenngott in 1855.

An emerald-green variety of enstatite is called chrome-enstatite and is cut as a gemstone. The green color is caused by traces of chromium, hence the varietal name. In addition, bronzite is also sometimes used as a gemstone.

Cyclosilicates, ring silicates, have linked tetrahedra with (SixO3x)2x- or a ratio of 1:3. These exists as 3-member (Si3O9)6-, 4-member (Si4O12)8- and 6-member (Si6O18)12- rings.

* 3-member ring
o Benitoite - BaTi(Si3O9)
* 4-member ring
o Axinite - (Ca,Fe,Mn)3Al2(BO3)(Si4O12)(OH)
* 6-member ring
o Beryl/Emerald - Be3Al2(Si6O18)
o Cordierite - (Mg,Fe)2Al3(Si5AlO18)
o Tourmaline - (Na,Ca)(Al,Li,Mg)3-(Al,Fe,Mn)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)
Sorosilicates are silicate minerals which have isolated double tetrahedra groups with (Si2O7)6− or a ratio of 2:7.
* Hemimorphite (calamine) - Zn4(Si2O7)(OH)2·H2O
* Lawsonite - CaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2·H2O
* Ilvaite - CaFe2+2Fe3+O(Si2O7)(OH)
* Epidote group (has both (SiO4)4− and (Si2O7)6− groups)
o Epidote - Ca2(Al,Fe)3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
o Zoisite - Ca2Al3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
o Clinozoisite - Ca2Al3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
o Tanzanite - Ca2Al3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
o Allanite - Ca(Ce,La,Y,Ca)Al2(Fe2+,Fe3+)O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
* Vesuvianite (idocrase) - Ca10(Mg,Fe)2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2O7)2(OH)4

7.Nesosilicates (Isolated Tetrahedral)
Nesosilicates (or orthosilicates) have isolated [SiO4]4−
tetrahedra that are connected only by interstitial cations.

* Phenacite group
o Phenacite - Be2SiO4
o Willemite - Zn2SiO4
* Olivine group
o Forsterite - Mg2SiO4
o Fayalite - Fe2SiO4
* Garnet group
o Pyrope - Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
o Almandine - Fe3Al2(SiO4)3
o Spessartine - Mn3Al2(SiO4)3
o Grossular - Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
o Andradite - Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3
o Uvarovite - Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
o Hydrogrossular - Ca3Al2Si2O8(SiO4)1-m(OH)4m
* Zircon group
o Zircon - ZrSiO4
o Thorite - (Th,U)2SiO4
* Al2SiO5 group
o Andalusite - Al2SiO5
o Kyanite - Al2SiO5
o Sillimanite - Al2SiO5
o Dumortierite - Al6.5-7BO3(SiO4)3(O,OH)3
o Topaz - Al2SiO4(F,OH)2
o Staurolite - Fe2Al9(SiO4)4(O,OH)2
* Humite group - (Mg,Fe)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
o Norbergite - Mg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
o Chondrodite - Mg5(SiO4)(F,OH)2
o Humite - Mg7(SiO4)(F,OH)2
o Clinohumite - Mg9(SiO4)(F,OH)2
* Datolite - CaBSiO4(OH)
* Titanite - CaTiSiO5
* Chloritoid - (Fe,Mg,Mn)2Al4Si2O10(OH)4

Olivine group

The mineral olivine (when gem-quality also called peridot) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. It is one of the most common minerals on Earth, and has also been identified in meteorites and on the Moon, Mars, and comet Wild 2.

The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember). Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e.g., Fo70Fa30). Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure, almost 1900°C, but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200°C). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers, as do other properties. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen, silicon, magnesium, and iron. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations.

Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4), monticellite (CaMgSiO4), and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4).



Oxide class

Oxides are extremely important in mining as they form many of the ores from which valuable metals can be extracted. They also carry the best record of changes in the Earth's magnetic field. They commonly occur as precipitates close to the Earth's surface, oxidation products of other minerals in the near surface weathering zone, and as accessory minerals in igneous rocks of the crust and mantle. Common oxides include hematite (iron oxide), magnetite (iron oxide), chromite (iron chromium oxide), spinel (magnesium aluminium oxide - a common component of the mantle), ilmenite (iron titanium oxide), rutile (titanium dioxide), and ice (hydrogen oxide). The oxide class includes the oxide and the hydroxide minerals.


Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and is one of the rock-forming minerals. It is naturally clear, but can have different colors when impurities are present. Transparent specimens are used as gems, called ruby if red, while all other colors are called sapphire. A pinkish-orange sapphire is called padparadscha.

Due to corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9.0 Mohs), it can scratch almost every other mineral, leaving behind a streak of white on the other mineral. It is commonly used as an abrasive, on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals, plastics and wood. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances, and the mix is less abrasive, with a lower average Mohs hardness near 8.0.

In addition to its hardness, corundum is unusual for its high density of 4.02 g/cm³, which is very high for a transparent mineral composed of the low atomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen.

Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist, gneiss, and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. It also occurs in low silica igneous syenite and nepheline syenite intrusives. Other occurrences are as masses adjacent to ultramafic intrusives, associated with lamprophyre dikes and as large crystals in pegmatites. Because of its hardness and resistance to weathering, it commonly occurs as a detrital mineral in stream and beach sands.

Corundum for abrasives is mined in Zimbabwe, Russia, and India. Historically it was mined from deposits associated with dunites in North Carolina and from a nepheline syenite in Craigmont, Ontario. Emery grade corundum is found on the Greek island of Naxos and near Peekskill, New York. Abrasive corundum is synthetically manufactured from bauxite.

Carbonate class

The carbonate minerals consist of those minerals containing the anion (CO3)2- and include calcite and aragonite (both calcium carbonate), dolomite (magnesium/calcium carbonate) and siderite (iron carbonate). Carbonates are commonly deposited in marine settings when the shells of dead planktonic life settle and accumulate on the sea floor. Carbonates are also found in evaporitic settings (e.g. the Great Salt Lake, Utah) and also in karst regions, where the dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonates leads to the formation of caves, stalactites and stalagmites. The carbonate class also includes the nitrate and borate minerals.

Phosphate class

The phosphate mineral group actually includes any mineral with a tetrahedral unit AO4 where A can be phosphorus, antimony, arsenic or vanadium. By far the most common phosphate is apatite which is an important biological mineral found in teeth and bones of many animals. The phosphate class includes the phosphate, arsenate, vanadate, and antimonate minerals.

Apatite Group

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH−, F−, or Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal. The formula of the admixture of the three most common endmembers is written as Ca5(PO4)3(OH, F, Cl), and the formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca5(PO4)3(OH), Ca5(PO4)3F and Ca5(PO4)3Cl, respectively.

Apatite is one of few minerals that are produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Apatite has a Moh's Scale hardness of 5. Hydroxylapatite is the major component of tooth enamel. A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.

Fluorapatite (or fluoroapatite) is more resistant to acid attack than is hydroxyapatite. For this reason, toothpaste typically contain a source of fluoride anions (e.g. sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate). Similarly, fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions for hydroxyl groups in apatite. Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis.

In the United States, apatite is often used to fertilize tobacco. It partially starves the plant of nitrogen, which gives American cigarettes a different taste from those of other countries.

Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. (U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well-established for use in determining thermal histories and other, less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating.

Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock, that contains between 18% and 40% P2O5. The apatite in phosphorite is present as cryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane.

Sulfate class

Sulfates all contain the sulfate anion, SO42-. Sulfates commonly form in evaporitic settings where highly saline waters slowly evaporate, allowing the formation of both sulfates and halides at the water-sediment interface. Sulfates also occur in hydrothermal vein systems as gangue minerals along with sulfide ore minerals. Another occurrence is as secondary oxidation products of original sulfide minerals. Common sulfates include anhydrite (calcium sulfate), celestine (strontium sulfate), barite (barium sulfate), and gypsum (hydrated calcium sulfate). The sulfate class also includes the chromate, molybdate, selenate, sulfite, tellurate, and tungstate minerals.

Halide class


The halides are the group of minerals forming the natural salts and include fluorite (calcium fluoride), halite (sodium chloride), sylvite (potassium chloride), and sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). Halides, like sulfates, are commonly found in evaporitic settings such as playa lakes and landlocked seas such as the Dead Sea and Great Salt Lake. The halide class includes the fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide minerals.


Sulfide class

Many sulfide minerals are economically important as metal ores. Common sulfides include pyrite (iron sulfide - commonly known as fools' gold), chalcopyrite (copper iron sulfide), pentlandite (nickel iron sulfide), and galena (lead sulfide). The sulfide class also includes the selenides, the tellurides, the arsenides, the antimonides, the bismuthinides, and the sulfosalts (sulfur and a second anion such as arsenic).

Element class

The elemental group includes metals and intermetallic elements (gold, silver, copper), semi-metals and non-metals (antimony, bismuth, graphite, sulfur). This group also includes natural alloys, such as electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver), phosphides, silicides, nitrides and carbides (which are usually only found naturally in a few rare meteorites).

Organic class

The organic mineral class includes biogenic substances in which geological processes have been a part of the genesis or origin of the existing compound.[2] Minerals of the organic class include various oxalates, mellitates, citrates, cyanates, acetates, formates, hydrocarbons and other miscellaneous species.[3] Examples include whewellite, moolooite, mellite, fichtelite, carpathite, evenkite and abelsonite.


Friday, November 21, 2008

Wind direction using Fortran

c Wind direction

integer ddd
print*,'Enter zonal and meridional wind'

if ((u.eq.0).and.(

if ((

if ((

if ((

if ((u.eq.0).and.(

if ((

if ((

if ((

print *,'wind Speed =',ff
print *,'wind direction =',ddd










Thursday, November 13, 2008

Gravity Waves

gravity wave:
gravity waves are waves generated in a fluid medium or at the interface between two mediums (e.g. the atmosphere or ocean) which has the restoring force of gravity or buoyancy.

When a fluid parcel is displaced on an interface or internally to a region with a different density, gravity restores the parcel toward equilibrium resulting in an oscillation about the equilibrium state. Gravity waves on an air-sea interface are called surface gravity waves or surface waves while internal gravity waves are called internal waves. Ocean waves and tsunamis are examples of gravity waves.

gravity wave—(Also called gravitational wave.) A wave disturbance in which buoyancy (or reduced gravity) acts as the restoring force on parcels displaced from hydrostatic equilibrium.
There is a direct oscillatory conversion between potential and kinetic energy in the wave motion. Pure gravity waves are stable for fluid systems that have static stability. This static stability may be 1) concentrated in an interface or 2) continuously distributed along the axis of gravity. The following remarks apply to the two types, respectively. 1) A wave generated at an interface is similar to a surface wave, having maximum amplitude at the interface. A plane gravity wave is characteristically composed of a pair of waves, the two moving in opposite directions with equal speed relative to the fluid itself. In the case where the upper fluid has zero density, the interface is a free surface and the two gravity waves move with speeds
where U is the current speed of fluid, g the acceleration of gravity, L the wavelength, and H the depth of the fluid. For deep-water waves (or Stokesian waves or short waves), H >> L and the wave speed reduces to
For shallow-water waves (or Lagrangian waves or long waves), H << L, and
All waves of consequence on the ocean surface or interfaces are gravity waves, for the surface tension of the water becomes negligible at wavelengths of greater than a few centimeters ( see capillary wave). 2) Heterogeneous fluids, such as the atmosphere, have static stability arising from a stratification in which the environmental lapse rate is less than the process lapse rate. The atmosphere can support short internal gravity waves and long external gravity waves. The short waves (of the order of 10 km) have been associated, for example, with lee waves and billow waves. Such waves have vertical accelerations that cannot be neglected in the vertical equation of perturbation motion. The long gravity waves, moving relative to the atmosphere with speed ±(gH)½, where H is the height of the corresponding homogeneous atmosphere, have small vertical accelerations and are therefore consistent with the quasi-hydrostatic approximation. In neither type of gravity wave, however, is the horizontal divergence negligible. For meteorological purposes in which neither type is desired as a solution, for example, numerical forecasting, they may be eliminated by some restriction on the magnitude of the horizontal divergence. The above discussion is based upon the method of small perturbations. In certain special cases of water waves, for example, the Gerstner wave or the solitary wave, a theory of finite-amplitude disturbances exists. See shear-gravity wave.
Gill, A. E., 1982: Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics, Academic Press, 95–188.

internal gravity wave—(Also called internal waves, gravity waves .) A wave that propagates in density-stratified fluid under the influence of buoyancy forces.

The dispersion relation is given by frequency
in which N is the buoyancy frequency and kh is the horizontal component of the wavenumber vector k. For all wavenumbers, internal gravity waves have frequency smaller than N. Their group velocity is perpendicular to the phase velocity such that the vertical component of the group velocity is opposite in sign to the vertical component of the phase velocity.

Gravity waves occur at interfaces between high and low density fluids. Most people are familiar with water surface waves, which act between water (as in lakes or oceans) and the air.

Where low density water overlies high density water in the ocean, internal gravity waves propagate along the boundary. They are especially common over the continental shelf regions of the world oceans and where brackish water overlies salt water at the outlet of large rivers.

There is typically little surface expression of the waves, aside from slick bands that can form over the trough of the waves.

Wavelengths vary from centimetres to kilometres with periods of seconds to hours.

Meteo 422 – Lecture 28 – Topographic gravity waves using the perturbation method

Dr. George S. Young

The derivations below generally follow those in the course text: Holton's "An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology"

Goals: Use the perturbation method to develop the theory of those internal gravity waves driven by flow over mountains. Discover how these theoretical results relate to the different types of mountain lee waves and how they can be used to forecast downslope windstorms.

* What are topographic gravity waves?
o Topographic gravity waves are the internal gravity waves that result when flow over mountains displace air in the vertical
o They are often called mountain lee waves, mountain waves, or lee waves.
o They propagate upstream

· With the horizontal phase speed matching the wind speed

· So that they remain fixed in position relative to the terrain

* Why do we care about topographic gravity waves?
o Mountain lee waves cause some of the largest vertical velocities in the atmosphere

· Severe weather

· Flight safety

· High altitude soaring

o Mountain wave drag needs to be parameterized in NWP models

* What additional assumptions do we make when applying the perturbation method to topographic gravity waves?
o Sinusoidal ridges

· This approximation doesn't hold up if you have isolated ridges

· But section 9.4 in Holton shows a more sophisticated version of the solution that is appropriate for isolated ridges.

o We assume that the waves are fixed (standing) relative to the terrain.

· That is, the Earth-relative frequency of the waves is zero.

· This assumption is appropriate unless the weather is changing rapidly.

o Holton again assumes that the mean wind and stability don't change with height

· This assumption works poorly near fronts.

· Much of the exciting weather associated with mountain waves results from this failure.

o There are patches for all of these problems in the more sophisticated versions of the internal gravity wave theory covered in section 9.4.

* Deriving the internal gravity wave dispersion relation via the perturbation method
o We'll make use of our pervious results to skip steps in the perturbation method wherever possible

· We're using the same equations of motion as last lecture.

· And the same linearization as last lecture.

o The wave equation is simpler however because the local derivative is zero for a standing wave. Not having a local derivative in the original equations of motion simplifies the derivation somewhat (Holton shows none of it) and results in a much simpler wave equation.

Note that this is only a 2nd order PDE instead of the 4th order PDE we had for traveling gravity waves.

* Now we derive the dispersion relation from the wave equation, using the same technique we did for traveling gravity waves.
o We first assume a solution of the usual form for a wave equation (i.e. the real part of a complex exponential).

where w-hat is complex and the phase allows for variations in x, y, and t.

· Note that we'll require k to be real so that the waves are sinusoidal in the horizontal, but allow m to be complex so that the waves can decay or grow with height.

· Remember the relationship between these wavenumbers and the corresponding wavelengths

o Then we plug this assumed solution into the wave equation to get the dispersion relation.

This equation will provide us with the key to determining what weather conditions allow vertically propagating waves versus vertically trapped waves.

Either or

* Vertically propagating versus decaying waves
o Vertically propagating waves occur when m is real (i.e. the wave is sinusoidal in the vertical)

· This requires m2 to be greater than zero.

o In contrast, vertically trapped waves occur when m is imaginary (i.e. the wave is exponential in the vertical)

· This requires m2 to be less than zero.

· Boundedness (i.e. nothing goes to infinity) requires that the resulting exponential in the vertical be exponential decay rather than growth.

o Consider a prototypical mountain – sinusoidal in the horizontal and of amplitude hm.

· Note that the flow must parallel the ground at the surface (it can't go through rock!). So the vertical velocity at the surface is just the wind speed times the slope.

· This gives us a lower boundary condition.

o Imaginary m (i.e. vertically trapped waves) occur when uk>N (i.e. the frequency of the mountain relative to the flow is greater than the buoyancy frequency of the resulting waves).

· This means it takes the air less time to cross the mountain than it does to complete one buoyantly driven oscillation.

· Or, equivalently, a freely traveling wave couldn't propagate up stream as fast as the mountain is.

where μ = magnitude of m.

o Real m (i.e. vertically propagating waves) occur when uk
· This means it takes the air more time to cross the mountain than it does to complete one buoyantly driven oscillation.

· Or, equivalently, a freely traveling wave can outrun the mountain and so tilts forward with height.

* Non-linearity
o Beware of the consequences of our assumed linearity

· We've assumed that the velocity perturbations are small relative to the mean wind.

· In real mountain lee wind storms they are often nearly equal to the mean wind.

· If they become equal to the mean wind, the wave breaks (like surf).

o So the results we've derived break down as the waves become more severe.

* Useful results
o Stable stratification, wide ridges, and weak wind favor vertically propagating waves

· The Rockies produce these often because the Front Range is about 100 km wide

· In contrast, the Appalachians tend to produce vertically trapped waves because the ridges are 1 to 10 km wide.

o Vertically propagating mountain lee waves tilt upwind with height

· So expect strong vertical motions OVER the mountain for vertically propagating waves. There may however be very little vertical motion downwind of the mountain.

· In contrast vertically trapped (i.e. horizontally propagating) waves have strong vertical motions both over the lee slopes and far downwind of the mountain.

· This difference is important for aviation forecasting – especially turbulence aloft forecasts.
Also refer,M1

for derivation.
the book named..........
Dynamics of the Atmosphere: A Course in Theoretical Meteorology
By Wilford Zdunkowski, Andreas Bott
it is available in Lib. Page:426

Reference is an email from
Anish Kumar.M.Nair